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美国英语中的性别歧视(转载)(2007-06-20 13:29:00)

摘要:美国英语中的性别歧视 □Alleen Pace Nilsen/文  □丁夏林/编译 究竟是文化决定语言,抑或是语言决定文化?这个问题很难解答,正如先有蛋还是先有鸡一样难说,因为语言与文化是密不可分的。
 
 语言学家普遍认为随着文化的演变,语言也要发生变化。可反过来说,即随着语言的变化文化也要跟着变化,这一观点倒没有被普遍接受。美国的一些女权运动者试图用"女士"(ms.)来代替"夫人”(mrs.)和 “小姐”(miss),以及替换那些光用男性词表示全人类的词,如“主席”(chairman),“人类”(mankind)“手足情”(brotherhood),“大学新生”(freshman)等等。语言学家嘲笑这些女权主义者,并对此嗤之以鼻,理由就在此。
 
 去年冬天,当我在晚上无所事事时,便拿来一本大词典,将每一个有关男性和女性的词条汇编成卡片。春天来到时,我的词典已经翻烂了,起了狗耳朵,但我收集的卡片多达两鞋箱。这卡片装满了美国英语在性别歧视方面的信息。
 
 首先,在西方文化中,妇女的身体被认为是重要的,而男人的头脑或行动是备受重视的。女人只要性感就值钱,而男人唯有事业成功才值钱。
 
 我为所有与某人的名字有关而进入现代英语的词制作一张卡片。仅以男人的名字现在用作常用词的就足有二英寸半厚。可记录女性词的那叠卡片才半英寸厚,而且大部分来自希腊神话。与美国名人有关的就有,“拉肢刑”(lynch),“低音大号”(sousaphone), "鬓脚”( sideburns), "火车卧铺车厢”(Pullman), “立克次氏体属微生物”(rickettsia), “希克氏白喉免疫性检验”(Schick test), "威彻斯特长枪”( Winchester rifle), "富兰克林锅”(Franklin stove), “巴特莱特梨”  (Bartlett pear), "玩具熊”(teddy bear), 以及“包艾森草莓”(boysenberry)。真正源自美国妇女的名字的常用词是“女式宽松装”(bloomers)以及"梅威斯特茄克装”(Mae West jacket)。这两个词均与女人的身......

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2007大学生英语竞赛好多题啊(2007-04-15 13:27:00)

摘要:这次竞赛改变了以前的风格,分为ABCD四个等级,我属于非英语本科生C等。今天我考了,题目不是很难,大概和4级差不多,好像比4级还低,不过有个问题就是题目太多了,总分150,听力30(类型好几种),阅读40,单选,智力测验,翻译,小作文和大作文,完型等。我自己都记不清楚了。 我知道智力测验我肯定搞不定,并且也只有5分,所以干脆先不做。我快速的做完阅读,单选,写大作文,然后写了小作文。还有5分钟的时候,还有智力测验没做。当然也没有时间去检查一遍了。只好随便看看智力测验的那些图形,数字,找规律,找呀找呀找规律,最后胡乱猜了几个。 我感觉初试就是考题量,而复试就好考一些需要理解的东西了。......

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英语中常见的描写句(2007-01-20 15:37:00)

摘要:1.朋友 Friends are angles who lift us to our feet when our wings have trouble remembering how to fly. 2.灾难  It was sunny with a little cold wind.God knew what was about to happen.All was silent. Suddenly the silence broke into pieces , full of crying in pains and shouting for helps 3. 情书 Each letter was a seed falling on a fertile heart. 4.雾 Early morning and mist is wrapped around the tops of the mountains . Down here it is lifting slowly like a reluctant child leaving her warm sleep. 5.悲伤 Sorrow is bushed into peace in my heart like the evening among the silent trees. 6.分离 The evening mist was rising now, and in the clear moonlight I saw no shadow of another separation  from her. 7.酷暑  That summer was so hot and dry that the lawns has faded to a crisp biscuit color and the flowers had drooped their beautiful  heads. 8 美景 I was rewarded  by one of the most magnificant sights I had ever seen.  ......

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献给即将奔赴战场的战友们(2006-12-19 23:23:00)

摘要:“There is no way ahead ,Sir!What should we do?” “The evil enemy is coming!” “We have lost so many peers!”           The continual reports came,anything but good news.I knew we would lose the war.As a generate,I begin to feel incapable.I sighed and looked out of the window.                All my people were at a loss.They cried ,ran,or just stood still with no purpose.I noticed the sunset ,like blood as before.Suddenly a flag came into my view.It was CET-4’s.Yes,CET-4 was my enemy.Powerful?I do not know.Maybe you can know the answer after the war.After the war?What does that mean?It means the war has not been over.Not over?Yes,you still have chances to win.Yeah!We still have scopes to get a triumph!I became so ambitious as to be brought back to earth.But wait,wait,who was answering my question just now?Who?It is you!I was sure I found the answer in the long run.     &n......

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今天是礼物,present?(2006-12-16 17:49:00)

摘要:Five Balls in the Air   Imagine life as a game in which you are juggling some five balls in the air. You name them:  Work,family,health,friends,and spirit, and you are keeping all these balls in the air.     You understand that work is a rubber ball . If you drop it, it will bounce back. But the other four balls are made of glass. If you one of these ,it will be irrecoverably scuffed, marked, nicked,damaged or even shattered.They will never be the same. You must understand that and strive for balance in your life. How ?            Do not undermine your worth by comparing yourself to others It is because we are different that each of us is special . Do not set goals by what other people deem important .Only you know what is best for you. Do not take for granted the things closest to your heart.Cling to them as you would to life, for without them , it is meaningless. Do not let life slip through fingers by living in the......

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